BIOS гэж юу вэ?

BIOS гэж юу вэ?

Энэ нь basic input/output system буюу орчуулбал оролт гаралтын үндсэн систем гэсэн утгатай. BIOS нь микросхем дээр тусгайлан бичсэн программ бөгөөд персонал компьютер дахь микропроцессор нь компьютерийг асаасны дараа системийг ачаалахад BIOS-г ашигладаг.


 Түүнчлэн компьютер дэхь үйлдлийн систем болон компьютерт холбогддог дагалдах төхөөрөмжүүдийн (хатуу диск, видео адаптер, гар, хулгана болон принтер) хоорондох өгөгдлийн дамжуулалтыг зохицуулдаг байна.
өөр нэг утгаараа бол BIOS нь EEPROM (electrically-erasable, programmable read-only memory) микросхем дээрх микропроцессорт хандах боломжтой программ юм.
Санах ойн хэмжээ нь 128K байдаг байна.Энэхүү BIOS ROM нь motherboard дээр суурилагддаг ба ихэвчлэн Award, American Megatrends (AMI) мөн Phoenix-ийн гэх BIOS-ууд тохиолддог.
BIOS нь компьютерийн салшгүй хэсэг бөгөөд таныг компьютер худалдан авахад үйлдвэрээсээ дагалдаж ирдэг.

BIOS ямар үүрэгтэй вэ?
BIOS-ын биелүүлдэг олон функцуудийн нэг бол системийг ачаалахад гүйцэтгэх түүний үүрэг юм. Компьютерыг асаахад системийн үндсэн санах ой хоосон байх бөгөөд нэн түрүүнд бүх дагалдах төхөөрөмжүүдийг шалгаад дараа нь үйлдлийн системийг хатуу диск эсвэл бусад дискний төхөөрөмжөөс дуудан уншиж, мotherboard дээр суурилагдсан тогтмол санах ой болох (RAM) -д ачаалдаг. Энэ үйлдлийг Boot гэнэ. Дагалдах төхөөрөмжүүдийн хаяглалтыг өөрчлөх нөхцөлд үүнийг BIOS л зөвхөн гүйцэтгэж чадахаас бус үйлдлийн систем болон хэрэглээний программуудын аль нь хийх боломжгүй. BIOS ажиллаж эхэлмэгцээ хамгийн түрүүнд эхний шалгах хэсгийн үйлдлийг хийж эхлэх ба үүнийг POST (Power-On Self-Test) гэнэ. Хэрэв таны компьютерийн аль нэг дагалдах төхөөрөмж, элемент гэмтэлтэй байвал энэ нь уг тестийн явцад илэрч дэлгэцийн адаптор хянагдсаны дараа дэлгэц дээр мэдээлэгдэнэ. Харин дэлгэцийн адаптор өөрөө гэмтэлтэй бол энэ тухайгаа сигнал хэлбэрээр мэдэгдэнэ.

BIOS-ын мэдээлэл
BIOS ажиллаж эхлэх үед та дэлгэц дээр BIOS-оос өгөх мэдээллийг харах болно. Эдгээрийг жагсаавал:
BIOS ийн хувилбар ба үйлдвэрлэсэн компанийн нэр
BIOS-ийг үйлдвэрлэсэн он
Процессорын нэр, хурд
Setup программ руу орох товчлуурын нэр (ихэвчлэн del, Ctrl+Alt+Esc, Del, зарим үед F2 буюу өөр ч товчлуур байх нь бий)
Системийн тэмдэгт буюу BIOS-г эсвэл motherboard-ийг үйлдвэрлэсэн компанийн барааны тэмдэг
BIOS ийн сериалын дугаар

Системийн тухай мэдээлэл
BIOS дискнээс үйлдлийн системийг ачаалахын өмнө таны компьютерийн системийн бүтцийн тухай товч мэдээлэл өгдөг. үүнд:
Processor: (Процессорын (CPU)төрөл): 486 DX-4 100MHz, PENTIUM II 350MHZ гэх мэт
Coprocessor (дагалдах процессор суурилагдсан эсэх): Ихэвчлэн "Installed" эсвэл "Integrated" гэсэн тодотголтой байдаг.
Floppy drive A: Tанигдсан А дискний хэмжээ, багтаамж
Floppy drive В: Tанигдсан В дискний хэмжээ, багтаамж
IDE/ATA Drives: Энэ нь компьютерт суурилагдсан primary master, primary slave эсвэл secondary master, secondary slave дискний тухай мэдээлэл байх ба өөрөөр хэлбэл энэ хэсэг таны компьютерийн хатуу дискний хэмжээ, төрлийг харуулдаг байна.
үндсэн санах ойн хэмжээ: Энэ нь тогтмол 640 К байдаг
өргөтгөсөн санах ойн хэмжээ:
Cache-ийн хэмжээ
Санах ойн төрөл: Ихэнх системийн хувьд санах ойн (RAM) хэмжээ болоод төрлүүдийг харуулдаг
Display -ний төрөл: VGA/SVGA гэх мэтээр бичигдэх ба энэ нь дэлгэцний талаарх хамгийн ерөнхий мэдээлэл байдаг.
Serial ports: Энэ бол таны компьютерийн оролт ба гаралтын сериал (I/O COM) портын хаягийн тухай мэдээлэл юм. Хэвийн сонголтоор бол энэ нь 3F8h, 2F8h гэсэн утга авдаг.
Parallel ports: Таны компьютерийн оролт ба гаралтын параллел (I/O LPT) портын хаягийн тухай мэдээлэл юм. Хэвийн сонголтоор бол энэ нь 378h гэсэн утга авдаг. Зарим үед 278h, 3BCh гэсэн хаягтай байдаг.

CMOS BIOS
өмнөх хэсгүүдэд BIOS-ийн үүрэг, дэлгэцэнд харуулах мэдээллүүдийн талаар тодорхой бичигдсэн. Тэгвэл эдгээр мэдээллийг шалгаж дэлгэцэнд гаргахын тулд BIOS уг компьютерийг анх ажилд бэлэн болгох үед бүх мэдээллээ өөрийн CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) ойдоо хадгалсан байдаг. Энэ бол BIOS дотор 64К зай эзлэж байдаг логик ой юм. Харин хадгалагдсан мэдээллээ алдахгүй байхын тулд BIOS-ын микросхемийг 3.5V-ийн батарейгаар тэжээж байдаг ба энэ нь мөн motherboard дээр байрладаг байна. Уг мэдээллийг уншихын тулд компьютерийн setup-ын программыг ажиллуулна.

Date: September 19th, 2007 | Categories: Компьютер | By: | Comments: 2,630

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