File Management. Үндсэн зарчим

File Management. Үндсэн зарчим

Файлын нийтлэг хэлбэрүүд нь программ, өгөгдөл, ASCII, зураг, аудио, видео файлууд юм. Transaction (завсрын) файлууд нь master (үндсэн) файлыг шинэчлэхэд хэрэглэгдэнэ. Файлыг batch processing эсвэл real-time processing дамжуулж боловсруулна.
Batch processing гэдэг нь нэг ажлыг нөгөө ажлын дараа гүйцэтгэх бөгөөд энэ хооронд ямар нэг заавар шаардлагагүйгээр гүйцэтгэх компанийн систем юм.


Файлтай юу хийж болох вэ? File Management Functions

Нийтлэг хэрэглэгддэг file management функцүүд нь:
• Create, name, save, delete, copy;
• Retrieve, update, print;
• Upload, download, compression;
• Import, export;

Өгөгдөл нь хэрхэн хадгалагдаж эсвэл ханддаг вэ? Энэ зарчмыг ойгохын тулд файлын төрөл ба комп нь хэрхэн файлын замыг хадгалагддаг тухай мэдэх хэрэгтэй.

Файлын төрөл, программын файл, өгөгдлийн файл ба бусад

Өгөгдөл эсвэл мэдээллийн цуглуулгыг файл гэх бөгөөд комп-т нэгж гэж үздэг. Программаас хамаарч файл нь файлын нэр, өргөтгөл гэсэн бүтэцтэй байдаг. (PC хувьд, Мас-ийн бус) Энэ өргөтгөл нь голдуу 3 тэмдэгт байна.

Файл нь олон төрөл байх бөгөөд үндсэн 2 төрөлд хувааж үзнэ.
• Program files: Программын файл гэдэг нь программ хангамжийн зааврыг агуулсан файлуудыг хэлнэ. Ж нь: Word processing эсвэл spread sheet программ нь ялгаатай программын файлуудыг агуулна. Энд source программ файл executable файл гэсэн 2 чухал файлууд байдаг. Source program files нь программистын бичсэн өндөр түвшний программын зааврыг агуулсан байна. Энэ төрлийн файлын өргөтгөл .COM байна. Процессор нь source программын зааврыг ашиглахын тулд машины хэлэнд хөрвүүлэгдэх ёстой. Машин хэлний зааврыг агуулсан файлыг executable файл гэнэ. Энэ файлуудын өргөтгөл .EXE байна. Зарим системийн файлуудын машины хэл рүү зааварчилгаа нь .DLL эсвэл .DRV өргөтгөлтэй байна.
• Data files: хэрэглэгчийн оруулсан өгөгдлийг агуулсан файлыг data file гэнэ. Ямар программ дээр өгөгдлийг оруулснаар хамаарч өргөтгөл нь тодорхойлогдоно. Ж нь: Word ашиглан хийгдсэн файлууд .DOC өргөтгөлтэй байна.
• ASCII files: ASCII нь өгөгдлийг комп-т дүрслэхэд ашиглагддаг бинар кодон схем юм. ASCII файл нь зөвхөн текст мэдээлэл бүхий файл бөгөөд ямар ч график, формат агуулахгүй. Энэ формат нь комп хооронд өгөгдлийг шилжүүлэхэд хэрэглэгддэг. Ж нь: PC  Mac өргөтгөл нь .TXT байна.
• Image files: ASCII нь текстэд зориулдаг бол image file нь дижитал графикт зориулагджээ. Тэднийг өргөтгөлөөр нь таньж болно. .TIF; .EPS; .JPG; .GIF; .BMP
• Audio files: Энэ нь дижитал дууг агуулна. CD-ROM эсвэл интернэтээс авч ашиглана. Өргөтгөл нь: .WAV; .MID
• Video files: Дижитал видео зургаар ашиглагдах ба киноны файлууд орно. Өргөтгөл нь: .AVI; .MPG

Keeping Track of Files

Цоо шинэ хатуу дискэнд өгөгдлийг хадгалж буй тохиолдолд файлууд нь дэс дараалан нэг дор байрлах болно. Аажимдаа засвар, устал хийснээр файлууд энд тэнд байрлах болно. Тэгвэл файлыг хаана байрлаж буйг хэрхэн тодорхойлох вэ? PC компьютерийн хувьд үйлдлийн систем нь FAT буюу File Allocation Table-г хэрэглэдэг. Энэ нь файлын нэр, хэмжээ, хамгийн сүүлд хадгалагдсан хугацаа, сар, өдөр, файлын байрлаж буй дискний байршил буюу cluster-ийн агуулсан директори юм. Macintosh-ийн хувьд үйлдлийн системийн нэг хэсэг болох Finder нь файлын байршилыг тодорхойлдог.

Data file-ийн 2 төрөл. Master & Transaction File

• Master file: Файлын үндсэн мэдээг агуулсан файлыг мастер файл гэнэ.
• Transaction file: Үндсэн файлд засвар оруулахад хэргэлэгдэх мэдээг тзр хугацаагаар хадгалж буй файлуудыг засварын файл гэнэ.

Batch & Online Processing

Updating нь 2 замаар хийгдэж болно.
• Batch processing: Өгөгдлийг тодорхой хугацаанд цуглуулж байгаад тодорхой цагт нэг дор гүйцэтгэх аргыг хэлнэ. Энэ арга нь өгөгдлийг шууд боловсруулах шаардлагагүй тохиолдолд хэрэглэж болох хямд арга юм.
• Online processing: Мөн real-time processing гэж нэрлэгдэх арга нь өөрчлөлтийг оруулангуут шууд master файлд өөрчлөлт ордог арга юм. Ж нь: АТМ-ийн картнаас мөнгө авангуут систем нь дансны үлдэгдлийг шууд тооцож харуулна. Airline reservation систем нь мөн online processing ашигладаг.

Offline & Online Storage

Ямар ч дискэнд хадгалагдсан бай өгөгдөл нь online эсвэл offline хэлбэрээр хадгалагдана.
Offline: өгөгдөлд дискийг оролтын төхөөрөмжинд ачаалах хүртэл хандах боломжгүй. Энэ төрлийн хадгалалт нь CPU-ээс шууд удирдагдахгүй.
Online: Өгөгдөл нь шууд хандалт хийнэ. Өөрөөр хэлбэл оролтын төхөөрөмжинд диск хийхийг хүлээх шаардлагагүй.

Date: July 9th, 2007 | Categories: Программ | By: | Comments: 2,449

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