Үйлдлийн систем

Үйлдлийн систем

Boot буюу компьютерийг эхлүүлдэг программийг уншиж дууссаны дараа ажилладаг үйлдлийн систем нь бусад хэрэглээний программийг ажиллуулахад гол үүрэг гүйцэтгэдэг. Үйлдлийн систем нь санах ой руу ачаалагддаг бөгөөд компьютерийн хүчин чадлыг зохицуулж, хувиарлахаас гадна компьютерийн гарнаас өгөгдсөн командыг дэлгэц рүү илгээх, дискэн дээр файл болон директоруудыг хадгалах мөн дагалдах төхөөрөмжүүд болох принтер, хулгана, уян болон хатуу дискний ажиллагааг хянадаг.

Томоохон систем дээр үйлдлийн систем нь хэрэглэгчдэд нэг нь бусдын хийж буй үйлдэлд нөлөөлөхгүйгээр систем рүү зэрэг хандаж чадахуйц нөхцлийг олгож, ачааллыг нь зохицуулж өгдөг. Мөн үйлдлийн системийн нууцлал нь маш сайн байх шаардлагатай байдаг.

Үйлдлийн системийг доорх төрлүүдээр ангилдаг:
Multitasking- Олон төрлийн программуудыг нэгэн зэрэг ажиллуулахад аль программ нь ямар горимоор хэдий хэрийн хугацаанд ажиллахыг үйлдлийн систем зохицуулдаг.
Multiuser- Нэгэн зэрэг олон хэрэглэгч хандаж ажиллах. Зарим үйлдлийн систем нь мянга мянган хэрэглэгч зэрэг хандаж чадахуйц боломжтой байдаг.
Multiprocessing – Нэгээс дээш тооны процессор дээр ажиллаж чадахуйц
Multithreading – Нэг программ дээр олон талаас нь зэрэг ажиллах боломж.

Үйлдлийн системүүдийн төрөл:

• DOS
• Windows
• OS/2
• Unix
• Linux
• Mac OS
• Sun OS
• Palm OS

Сүүлийн үед хамгийн өргөн хэрэглэгдэж байгаа үйлдлийн системүүд нь Windows95/98, WindowsNT, MacOS болон Unix юм.
Windows 95/98 үйлдлийн системүүдийн үндсэн төрх нь Start товчлуур болон taskbar-с бүрддэг бол MacOS -ынх бүхэлдээ өөр байдаг.
Хэрэглэгч үйлдлийн системтэй төрөл бүрийн командын тусламжтайгаар харьцдаг. Жишээ нь: DOS үйлдлийн систем дээр COPY гэсэн командаар файлыг өөр тийшээ хуулахад үүнийг үйлдлийн системийн нэг хэсэг болох Command processor эсвэл Command line interpreter ч гэж нэрлэгддэг командын тусламжтайгаар гүйцэтгэдэг. Харин Graphical User Interface (GUI) нь дэлгэц дээр байгаа дүрсийг дарснаар үйлдлийг гүйцэтгэдэг.

DOS (Disk Operating System)

Disk Operating System нь персонал компьютерт зориулж гаргасан, компьютер хэрэглэгчдийн дунд өргөн тархсан анхны үйлдлийн систем байв. Персонал компьютер гарахаас өмнө Bill Gates IBM компьютерт зориулж DOS үйлдлийн системийг гаргасан бөгөөд энэ үйлдлийн системийнхээ эрхийг Microsoft корпорацийн дор аваад нэрийг MS-DOS гэж өөрчилсөн.
Персонал компьютерт зориулсан учраас анхны нэр нь PC-DOS буюу Personal Computer Disk Operating System гэж байв. Гэвч ихэнх хэрэглэгчид энэ үйлдлийн системийг DOS гэж нэрлэдэг.
DOS нь графикан бус, командын горимын үйлдлийн систем юм.
Командыг prompt буюу командын мөрнөөс оруулдаг.

С:\>
Windows 98Se системээс DOS-н мөрөнд шилжсэн байдал:

pro2

Файлуудтай ажиллах командууд:

DIR команд
Дэлгэц дээр файл, каталогийн жагсаалтыг гаргана.
Жишээ: C:\>DIR
ERASE ба DEL команд
ERASE командаар хэрэггүй файлыг устгаж болно. Энэ командын оронд DEL (DELETE) командыг хэрэглэж болно. Энэ хоёр команд нь ижил үүрэг гүйцэтгэдэг.
Жишээ: C:\>ERASE INTRODUCTION.TXT
RENAME команд
Уг командаар файлын нэрийг өөрчилдөг. RENAME командыг REN гэж товчилж бичиж болно. Файлын нэрийг өөрчлөхийн тулд өөрчлөх файлын хуучин нэр болон шинэ нэрийг хооронд нь нэг зай авч бичнэ.
Жишээ: C:\>REN OLD.TXT NEW.TXT
TYPE команд
Уг командын тусламжтай дэлгэцэн дээр файлыг уншдаг. Файлын нэрийг өргөтгөлийн хамт бичих шаардлагатай.
Жишээ: C:\>TYPE INTRODUCTION.TXT
Программыг ажиллуулах
Программ ажиллуулахын тулд түүний файлын нэрийг оруулна. Өргөтгөлийг бичих шаардлагагүй.
Жишээ: C:\>DIGGER
Нэг дискийн төхөөрөмжөөс нөгөөд шилжих.
Жишээ: C:\>A:
FORMAT команд
FORMAT командаар дискийг форматлаж, ажилд бэлтгэнэ. Энэ команд нь дискэн дээр зам гаргаж, зам тус бүрийг секторт хуваадаг. Хэрэв дискийн аль нэг хэсэг нь гэмтэлтэй байвал энэ хэсгийг бичлэг бичигдэхгүй болгон тусгаарладаг.
Жишээ: C:\>FORMAT A:
C:\>FORMAT A:/S – дискийг форматлаад, дээр нь системийн файлуудыг бичнэ.
COPY команд
COPY команд нь файлыг нэг дискнээс нөгөө рүү, нэг каталогоос нөгөөд хуулах, гадны төхөөрөмжүүдийн хооронд мэдээлэл солилцох, хуулах явцад мэдээллийг нэгтгэх үйлдлийг гүйцэтгэнэ.
Жишээ: C:\>COPY OLD.TXT A:NEW.TXT гэсэн команд нь C хатуу дискэн дэхь OLD.TXT файлыг A гэсэн уян диск рүү NEW.TXT нэртэйгээр хуулна. DISKCOPY команд
DISKCOPY командын тусламжтайгаар уян дискийг бүхлээр нь өөр диск дээр хуулна.
CHKDSK команд
CHKDSK командаар диск төхөөрөмжид байгаа дискийг шалгана.
COMP команд
Уг командаар дискийн файлуудыг харьцуулна. Файлыг хуулсны дараа DIR командаар үр дүнгээ харж болно. Түүнээс гадна файл зөв хуулагдсаныг COMP командаар шалгаж болно. Энэ команд файлыг байт байтаар харьцуулж, ялгаатай байтын тухай мэдээлнэ.
DISKCOMP команд
Уг командаар хоёр уян дискийг харьцуулна.
RECOVER команд
Уг командаар файлыг сэргээнэ. Дискийн сектор нь алдаатай байвал дискийн файлыг ашиглах боломжгүй болгодог. Энэ тохиолдолд RECOVER командыг ашигладаг.
VERSION команд
VERSION командаар MS-DOS үйлдлийн системийн хувилбарыг шалгана.

Үйлдлийн системийн боломжийг өөрчлөх командууд:

ASSIGN – Диск төхөөрөмжийн нэрийг өөрчлөх
CLS – Дэлгэцийг цэвэрлэх
DATE – Он, сар, өдрийг тохируулах
MODE – Гаргах төхөөрөмжийн ажлын горимыг өөрчлөх
PROMPT – Системийг мэдээг өөрчлөх
TIME – Цаг тохируулах
VERIFY – Мэдээг шалгах

Каталог өргөтгөх командууд:

MKDIR – Дэд каталог үүсгэх
CHDIR – Дэд каталогт шилжих
PATH – Каталогуудын хооронд зам заах
RMDIR – Дэд каталогийг устгах
TREE -Дэд каталогуудын бүтцийг гаргах

Энэ талаар та юу гэж бодож байна? Манай бусад хэрэглэгчидтэй сэтгэгдэлээ форумаар дамжуулан хуваалцана уу. 

Date: July 6th, 2007 | Categories: Программ | By: | Comments: 3,627

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