Үйлдлийн систем

Үйлдлийн систем

Boot буюу компьютерийг эхлүүлдэг программийг уншиж дууссаны дараа ажилладаг үйлдлийн систем нь бусад хэрэглээний программийг ажиллуулахад гол үүрэг гүйцэтгэдэг. Үйлдлийн систем нь санах ой руу ачаалагддаг бөгөөд компьютерийн хүчин чадлыг зохицуулж, хувиарлахаас гадна компьютерийн гарнаас өгөгдсөн командыг дэлгэц рүү илгээх, дискэн дээр файл болон директоруудыг хадгалах мөн дагалдах төхөөрөмжүүд болох принтер, хулгана, уян болон хатуу дискний ажиллагааг хянадаг.

Томоохон систем дээр үйлдлийн систем нь хэрэглэгчдэд нэг нь бусдын хийж буй үйлдэлд нөлөөлөхгүйгээр систем рүү зэрэг хандаж чадахуйц нөхцлийг олгож, ачааллыг нь зохицуулж өгдөг. Мөн үйлдлийн системийн нууцлал нь маш сайн байх шаардлагатай байдаг.

Үйлдлийн системийг доорх төрлүүдээр ангилдаг:
Multitasking- Олон төрлийн программуудыг нэгэн зэрэг ажиллуулахад аль программ нь ямар горимоор хэдий хэрийн хугацаанд ажиллахыг үйлдлийн систем зохицуулдаг.
Multiuser- Нэгэн зэрэг олон хэрэглэгч хандаж ажиллах. Зарим үйлдлийн систем нь мянга мянган хэрэглэгч зэрэг хандаж чадахуйц боломжтой байдаг.
Multiprocessing – Нэгээс дээш тооны процессор дээр ажиллаж чадахуйц
Multithreading – Нэг программ дээр олон талаас нь зэрэг ажиллах боломж.

Үйлдлийн системүүдийн төрөл:

• DOS
• Windows
• OS/2
• Unix
• Linux
• Mac OS
• Sun OS
• Palm OS

Сүүлийн үед хамгийн өргөн хэрэглэгдэж байгаа үйлдлийн системүүд нь Windows95/98, WindowsNT, MacOS болон Unix юм.
Windows 95/98 үйлдлийн системүүдийн үндсэн төрх нь Start товчлуур болон taskbar-с бүрддэг бол MacOS -ынх бүхэлдээ өөр байдаг.
Хэрэглэгч үйлдлийн системтэй төрөл бүрийн командын тусламжтайгаар харьцдаг. Жишээ нь: DOS үйлдлийн систем дээр COPY гэсэн командаар файлыг өөр тийшээ хуулахад үүнийг үйлдлийн системийн нэг хэсэг болох Command processor эсвэл Command line interpreter ч гэж нэрлэгддэг командын тусламжтайгаар гүйцэтгэдэг. Харин Graphical User Interface (GUI) нь дэлгэц дээр байгаа дүрсийг дарснаар үйлдлийг гүйцэтгэдэг.

DOS (Disk Operating System)

Disk Operating System нь персонал компьютерт зориулж гаргасан, компьютер хэрэглэгчдийн дунд өргөн тархсан анхны үйлдлийн систем байв. Персонал компьютер гарахаас өмнө Bill Gates IBM компьютерт зориулж DOS үйлдлийн системийг гаргасан бөгөөд энэ үйлдлийн системийнхээ эрхийг Microsoft корпорацийн дор аваад нэрийг MS-DOS гэж өөрчилсөн.
Персонал компьютерт зориулсан учраас анхны нэр нь PC-DOS буюу Personal Computer Disk Operating System гэж байв. Гэвч ихэнх хэрэглэгчид энэ үйлдлийн системийг DOS гэж нэрлэдэг.
DOS нь графикан бус, командын горимын үйлдлийн систем юм.
Командыг prompt буюу командын мөрнөөс оруулдаг.

С:\>
Windows 98Se системээс DOS-н мөрөнд шилжсэн байдал:

pro2

Файлуудтай ажиллах командууд:

DIR команд
Дэлгэц дээр файл, каталогийн жагсаалтыг гаргана.
Жишээ: C:\>DIR
ERASE ба DEL команд
ERASE командаар хэрэггүй файлыг устгаж болно. Энэ командын оронд DEL (DELETE) командыг хэрэглэж болно. Энэ хоёр команд нь ижил үүрэг гүйцэтгэдэг.
Жишээ: C:\>ERASE INTRODUCTION.TXT
RENAME команд
Уг командаар файлын нэрийг өөрчилдөг. RENAME командыг REN гэж товчилж бичиж болно. Файлын нэрийг өөрчлөхийн тулд өөрчлөх файлын хуучин нэр болон шинэ нэрийг хооронд нь нэг зай авч бичнэ.
Жишээ: C:\>REN OLD.TXT NEW.TXT
TYPE команд
Уг командын тусламжтай дэлгэцэн дээр файлыг уншдаг. Файлын нэрийг өргөтгөлийн хамт бичих шаардлагатай.
Жишээ: C:\>TYPE INTRODUCTION.TXT
Программыг ажиллуулах
Программ ажиллуулахын тулд түүний файлын нэрийг оруулна. Өргөтгөлийг бичих шаардлагагүй.
Жишээ: C:\>DIGGER
Нэг дискийн төхөөрөмжөөс нөгөөд шилжих.
Жишээ: C:\>A:
FORMAT команд
FORMAT командаар дискийг форматлаж, ажилд бэлтгэнэ. Энэ команд нь дискэн дээр зам гаргаж, зам тус бүрийг секторт хуваадаг. Хэрэв дискийн аль нэг хэсэг нь гэмтэлтэй байвал энэ хэсгийг бичлэг бичигдэхгүй болгон тусгаарладаг.
Жишээ: C:\>FORMAT A:
C:\>FORMAT A:/S – дискийг форматлаад, дээр нь системийн файлуудыг бичнэ.
COPY команд
COPY команд нь файлыг нэг дискнээс нөгөө рүү, нэг каталогоос нөгөөд хуулах, гадны төхөөрөмжүүдийн хооронд мэдээлэл солилцох, хуулах явцад мэдээллийг нэгтгэх үйлдлийг гүйцэтгэнэ.
Жишээ: C:\>COPY OLD.TXT A:NEW.TXT гэсэн команд нь C хатуу дискэн дэхь OLD.TXT файлыг A гэсэн уян диск рүү NEW.TXT нэртэйгээр хуулна. DISKCOPY команд
DISKCOPY командын тусламжтайгаар уян дискийг бүхлээр нь өөр диск дээр хуулна.
CHKDSK команд
CHKDSK командаар диск төхөөрөмжид байгаа дискийг шалгана.
COMP команд
Уг командаар дискийн файлуудыг харьцуулна. Файлыг хуулсны дараа DIR командаар үр дүнгээ харж болно. Түүнээс гадна файл зөв хуулагдсаныг COMP командаар шалгаж болно. Энэ команд файлыг байт байтаар харьцуулж, ялгаатай байтын тухай мэдээлнэ.
DISKCOMP команд
Уг командаар хоёр уян дискийг харьцуулна.
RECOVER команд
Уг командаар файлыг сэргээнэ. Дискийн сектор нь алдаатай байвал дискийн файлыг ашиглах боломжгүй болгодог. Энэ тохиолдолд RECOVER командыг ашигладаг.
VERSION команд
VERSION командаар MS-DOS үйлдлийн системийн хувилбарыг шалгана.

Үйлдлийн системийн боломжийг өөрчлөх командууд:

ASSIGN – Диск төхөөрөмжийн нэрийг өөрчлөх
CLS – Дэлгэцийг цэвэрлэх
DATE – Он, сар, өдрийг тохируулах
MODE – Гаргах төхөөрөмжийн ажлын горимыг өөрчлөх
PROMPT – Системийг мэдээг өөрчлөх
TIME – Цаг тохируулах
VERIFY – Мэдээг шалгах

Каталог өргөтгөх командууд:

MKDIR – Дэд каталог үүсгэх
CHDIR – Дэд каталогт шилжих
PATH – Каталогуудын хооронд зам заах
RMDIR – Дэд каталогийг устгах
TREE -Дэд каталогуудын бүтцийг гаргах

Энэ талаар та юу гэж бодож байна? Манай бусад хэрэглэгчидтэй сэтгэгдэлээ форумаар дамжуулан хуваалцана уу. 

Date: July 6th, 2007 | Categories: Программ | By: | Comments: 2,217

2,217 Responses to Үйлдлийн систем

    Greetings! I’ve been following your website for some time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Atascocita Tx! Just wanted to say keep up the good job!

    This website really has all of the information I wanted about this subject and didn’t know who to ask. |

    Wow, fantastic blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your site is great, let alone the content!|

    I was very pleased to uncover this page. I want to to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely enjoyed every part of it and I have you saved as a favorite to check out new things on your blog.|

    Hello I am so grateful I found your weblog, I really found you by accident, while I was looking on Digg for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thank you for a marvelous post and a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the awesome jo.|

    I have been browsing on-line greater than three hours as of late, but I by
    no means discovered any interesting article like yours.
    It’s beautiful price sufficient for me. Personally,
    if all website owners and bloggers made excellent content
    material as you did, the web will probably be a lot more useful than ever before.

    I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This article posted at this site is in fact pleasant.|

    I have ben surffing onine mote than 4 hours today, yeet I neverr found
    anny interesting article lke yours. It’s pretty
    worgh enoubh ffor me. In myy opinion, iff alll wweb owwners aand
    blogtgers ade gold ccontent ass yyou did, the webb wioll be mjch morfe
    uuseful thann eber before.

    If some one needs to be updated with hottest technologies after that he must be visit this site and be up to date everyday.|

    You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something that I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I am looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!|

    Greetings! Very helpful advice within this article! It is the little changes that produce the biggest changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!

    My brother suggested I might like this blog. He was entirely right. This post actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!|

    Fine way of explaining, and good article to obtain information concerning my presentation topic, which i am going to convey in school.|

    You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something that I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I am looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

    Hey there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be okay. I’m definitely enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.|

    I visited several blogs except the audio feature for audio songs existing at this website is in fact excellent.|

    I am so happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the accidental misinformation that’s at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this best doc.

    Hey would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with? I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a tough time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!|

    Today, I went to the beachfront with my kids.
    I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter
    and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear and screamed.

    There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!
    LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

    I’ve been browsing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.

    It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made
    good content as you did, the internet will be much
    more useful than ever before.

    You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be really something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complex and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!|

    Great info. Lucky me I ran across your site by accident (stumbleupon). I’ve saved as a favorite for later!

    Your house is valueble for me. Thanks!…

    An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I do believe that you need to write more about this subject matter, it may not be a taboo subject but typically people do not talk about such issues. To the next! Many thanks!!|

    Hi! I could have sworn Iíve visited this website before but after going through a few of the articles I realized itís new to me. Regardless, Iím certainly delighted I discovered it and Iíll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly!

    Hello, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam comments? If so how do you reduce it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any help is very much appreciated.|

    One more thing to say is that an online business administration training course is designed for students to be able to well proceed to bachelors degree courses. The Ninety credit certification meets the lower bachelor college degree requirements and when you earn your own associate of arts in BA online, you should have access to the most up-to-date technologies in this field. Several reasons why students would like to get their associate degree in business is because they may be interested in this area and want to receive the general knowledge necessary prior to jumping in a bachelor diploma program. Thx for the tips you provide in the blog.

    bookmarked!!, I like your web site!

    Hi, i feel that i saw you visited my blog so i came to “go back the want”.I’m attempting to in finding issues to enhance my web site!I guess its adequate to use a few of your ideas!!

    Hey there would you mind letting me know which webhost you’re working with? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good hosting provider at a fair price? Kudos, I appreciate it!|

    Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve consider your stuff previous to and you’re just too wonderful. I actually like what you have bought here, really like what you are stating and the way wherein you are saying it. You make it enjoyable and you continue to care for to keep it smart. I cant wait to read far more from you. That is actually a great website.|

    I like the valuable information you provide in your articles.
    I will bookmark your weblog and check again here frequently.
    I am quite certain I will learn plenty of new
    stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

    Thank you for sharing most of these wonderful content. In addition, the optimal travel and also medical insurance strategy can often eliminate those concerns that come with journeying abroad. Some sort of medical emergency can shortly become too expensive and that’s absolute to quickly decide to put a financial problem on the family’s finances. Having in place the great travel insurance deal prior to leaving is well worth the time and effort. Thank you

    There’s certainly a great deal to know about this subject. I like all of the points you have made.|

    Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your webpage? My blog site is in the very same niche as yours and my users would certainly benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this ok with you. Regards!

    You’re so awesome! I don’t think I’ve read anything like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this issue. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This site is one thing that is required on the internet, someone with some originality!|

    It’s hard to search out knowledgeable people on this subject, however you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

    After looking at a few of the blog articles on your web site, I truly appreciate your way of blogging. I saved it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back in the near future. Please visit my web site too and tell me your opinion.

    Truly no matter if someone doesn’t be aware of then its up to other viewers that they will assist, so here it takes place.|

    My brother recommended I might like this website. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!|

    Your style is really unique compared to other people I’ve read stuff from. Thank you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark this blog.

    This post provides clear idea in favor of the new people of blogging, that truly how to do running a blog.|

    Pretty great post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I’ve really loved browsing your weblog posts. In any case I will be subscribing for your feed and I’m hoping you write again soon!|

    Generally I do not read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do so! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, quite nice article.

    If some one wishes to be updated with most up-to-date technologies then he must be go to see this website and be up to date daily.|

    Nice post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon on a daily basis. It will always be helpful to read through articles from other writers and use a little something from their websites. |

    obviously like your website but you have to take a look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very bothersome to inform the reality on the other hand I will surely come back again.|

Leave a Reply

Message:*

Name:

Email:

Website: