Компьютерийн үндсэн ойлголт

Компьютерийн үндсэн ойлголт

comp10Электроник болон электромеханик хэсгүүдээс бүрдсэн төхөөрөмжийг компьютер гэнэ.
Энэ төхөөрөмжийг дангаар нь ашиглах боломжгүй бөгөөд дараах зүйлүүд нэгдэж, компьютерийн системийг бүрэлдүүлдэг. Ингэснээр бид өөрийн хэрэгцээндээ ашиглах боломжтой болдог.


– Hardware (техник хангамж)

– Software (программ хангамж)
– Өгөгдөл, мэдээлэл (төрөл бүрийн мэдээлэл)
– Гарын авлага, материал (компьютерийн программ, төхөөрөмжүүдийг ашиглах гарын авлага)
– Хэрэглэгч (компьютерийг ашиглах хүн)
– Холболт (телефон утас, радио релейний шугам, утасгүй холболт, сансрын холболт г.м)

Компьютер нь мэдээллийг тоон хэлбэрт шилжүүлж, программуудийн тусламжтай боловсруулалт хийн, хадгалах төхөөрөмжинд тодорхой хугацаагаар сануулах, мэдээллийг гаралтын төхөөрөмжүүд болох дэлгэцэнд гаргах, принтерээр хэвлэх зэрэг олон төрлийн үйлдлийг гүйцэтгэдэг.

Компьютер нь дараах зүйлүүдээс бүрддэг.
– Санах ой
– Өгөгдлийг хадгалах төхөөрөмжүүд: хатуу диск, уян диск, компакт диск, tape төхөөрөмж
– Оролтын төхөөрөмж : гар, хулгана, микрофон
– Гаралтын төхөөрөмж : дэлгэц, принтер, чанга яригч
– Төв процессор (CPU): бүх үйлдлийг төв процессорт боловсруулдаг

Тоон систем дээр суурилсан компьютер

Компьютер нь нэлээд төвөгтэй төхөөрөмж шиг санагдавч үндсэн зарчим нь маш энгийн байдаг. Анх компьютерийг нээхэд электрон гүйдлүүдийг олж харна. Энэхүү гүйдэл нь зөвхөн асах, эсвэл унтрах гэсэн хрёр утгыг агуулна. Учир нь компьютер 0,1 гэсэн хоёртын тооллын систем дээр үндэслэгддэг. Энэ нь binaries гэсэн латин үгнээс гаралтай. Ийнхүү тоон буюу дижитал сигнал нь мэдээллийг хоёртын тооллын систем дээр дүрсэлдэг байна. Дижиталын ойролцоо утгатай үг нь computer-based юм. Энд хэрэглэгдэж буюу 0 буюу 1-ийг бит(bit) гэнэ. Олон тооны битүүдийн хослолоор тоо, үсэг, тэмдэгтүүд бүрдэнэ. Жишээ нь: H үсэг- 01001000(off-on-off-off…) 8bit=1Byte

Хоёртын тоон сиситем нь компьютерийг боловсруулалт хийх, өгөгдөл хадгалах, нэг нэгэнтэй холбогдох бүх процесст өгөгдлийг дүрслэх арга болдог.

Аналог систем дээр суурилсан амьдрал

Нарны тусгал, шувууны нислэг, дуучны хоолой гэх мэт зүйлийг хоёртын тололлор буюу зөвхөн хар шагаанаар дүрслэхэд хэцүү. Өөрөөр хэлбэл хугацаа болон замын туршид өөрчлөгдөн хувьсч байдаг аналог систем дээр тулгуурладаг. Дуу, гэрэл, даралт, темпераур шэрэг байж болно. Нам болон өндөр түвшин мөн дунд түвшин бшгд аналог ёиётесийн хувьд дүрслэгдэнэ. Тухайлбал ердийн цагны хувьд цаг, минут, секундыг харуулж байгаа нь аналог шиг, зөвхөн хэдэн цаг минут болж байгааг тоогоор үзүүлж буй нь тоон системийн нэг жишээ болно.

Бодит зүйлсийг тоон хэлбэрт хувиргах нь

Дуучныг дуулж байхад нь энгийн туузан хальсан дээр бичлэг хийж байна гэж төсөөлье. Аналог процесс нь дууг шууд тэр хэлбэрээр нь хуулна. Энэ үед дотны болон гадны нөлөө болох сарнил, замхрал, унтрал, шуугиан зэргийг агуулна.

Харин тоон бичлэгийн процесс бол нэлээд ялгаатай. Жишээ нь: хөгжмийн CD’д хөгжмийг хуулах процесс аналогтай адилгүй. Тоон процессийн үед дууны тодорхой төлөөллийг сонгон авч виртуалаар түүнийгээ хуулдаг бөгөөд энд ямар нэгэн дотоод болон гадаад нөлөө ордоггүй. Компьютер дээр суурилсан төхөөрөмж нь секундэд дунджаар 44100 удаа тогомол интервалд дууг төлөөлөл болгон авдаг. Энэхүү тоо нь сонсголын эрхтэн ердийн дуу мэтээр хүлээн авахад хангалттай тоо юм. Үүн шиг материалын өнгийг гэрэл, өнгө (brightness, color) –ийн тусламжтай бодит өнгөний хэмжээнд дүрсэлдэг байна.

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Date: July 5th, 2007 | Categories: Компьютер | By: | Comments: 4,413

4,413 Responses to Компьютерийн үндсэн ойлголт

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